Men's Health

The endocrine system plays a critical role in human reproduction and sexuality. In men, the testes (testicles) produce testosterone, a hormone that brings about the physical changes that transform a boy into an adult male. Throughout life, testosterone helps maintain muscle and bone mass, sperm production, and sex drive. Women's ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone, hormones responsible for female development and maintaining pregnancy.

Important reproductive health issues in men include:
  • Prostate concerns, including enlarged prostate and prostate cancer
  • Male hypogonadism—effects (symptoms) of low testosterone and consistently lower than normal levels of testosterone in the blood
  • Male infertility—inability to produce sperm adequate for reproduction
Sexual dysfunction:
  • Erectile dysfunction—inability to get or keep an erection from enough for sexual intercourse
  • Decreased libido—reduced sexual desire or interest

If you have a reproductive health problem, the first step towards resolving it is getting an accurate diagnosis. For that, you should consult a medical specialist such as an endocrinologist who is an expert in reproductive problems. After a diagnosis, your doctor will describe your treatment options. Many problems can be managed with the use of hormone therapy. This section will discuss the different reproductive health issues in men, and help you navigate the next steps towards getting an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan.


  • Decreased Libido

    Libido is the desire to engage in sexual activity. About 5% of men have decreased libido, a condition that increases with age.

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  • Prostate Enlargement

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an enlargement of the prostate gland. As men age, it’s common for the prostate to get larger. BPH does not lead to prostate cancer.

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  • Erectile Dysfunction

    Erectile dysfunction (ED), or impotence, is the inability to consistently initiate or keep an erection long enough to have satisfactory sex. Men often have problems with their erections once in a while. If ED occurs often, medical treatment may help.

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  • Gynecomastia

    Gynecomastia is breast enlargement in boys or men due to a benign (non-cancerous) increase in breast tissue. This condition results from an imbalance between the hormones testosterone and estrogen.

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  • Male Infertility

    Infertility is the inability of a sexually active couple who are not using birth control to get pregnant after one year of trying. Problems in the male partner affect about 40 percent of infertile couples.

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  • Low Testosterone

    Over time, low testosterone may cause a man to lose body hair, muscle bulk, and strength and to gain body fat. Chronic (long-term) low testosterone may also cause weak bones (osteoporosis), mood changes, less energy, and smaller testes.

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  • Prostate Cancer

    Prostate cancer starts in the cells of the prostate but can spread throughout the body. Other than skin cancer, it is the most common cancer in U.S. men.

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