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Amenorrhea

Amenorrhea

  • Editors
  • JoAnn V. Pinkerton, MD
    Cynthia A. Stuenkel, MD

What is amenorrhea?

Amenorrhea is the term used when a woman or adolescent girl is not having menstrual periods.  There are two types of amenorrhea:

Pituitaryadrenalfemale

This fact sheet is about secondary amenorrhea that is not due to pregnancy. 

What are the symptoms of secondary amenorrhea?

Symptoms vary according to the cause.  Women can have hot flashes, discharge of milk from the nipples, vaginal dryness, headaches, and vision changes.  Some women develop acne and grow hair on the face and body.  Many women have no symptoms other than the lack of periods.

What causes absent periods?

Women naturally stop menstruating during pregnancy, long-term breastfeeding, and menopause.  Birth control pills and injections and hormone-containing IUDs cause amenorrhea in some women.  A number of other conditions can cause secondary amenorrhea (see table). 

Condition

Causes

Primary ovarian insufficiency, also called premature ovarian failure (menopause before age 40)

  • Abnormal chromosomes
  • Immune disorders
  • Damage to the ovaries from chemotherapy or radiation

Long-term lack of ovulation (release of an egg from the ovary) due to disorders of the hypothalamus

  • Mental stress
  • Weight loss and low body weight
  • Eating disorders such as anorexia
  • Excessive exercise
  • Tumor of the hypothalamus

Long-term lack of ovulation due to disorders of the pituitary

  • Increased prolactin by a small benign tumor
  • Pituitary damage
  • Radiation to the head

Abnormal balance of other hormones

  • Polycystic ovary syndrome
  • Adrenal or thyroid gland disorders

Scarring of the uterus

  • Some uterine procedures such as dilation and curettage (D & C)
  • Infection

How is secondary amenorrhea diagnosed?

Your doctor will ask questions about your medical history and do a physical exam. You will have a pregnancy test.  Your doctor will likely order blood tests to check levels of FSH, LH, TSH, and prolactin.  Blood tests also can measure androgen levels and check for thyroid or adrenal gland disorders.

If you have primary ovarian insufficiency and you’re under age 30, your doctor may check your chromosomes to see if a genetic abnormality is the cause.  If your doctor thinks you may have a problem with your pituitary gland or hypothalamus, you will have an MRI, a brain imaging test.  Some women also have imaging tests of their reproductive organs. 

What is the treatment for absent periods?

The treatment depends on the cause of your amenorrhea.  Options for treatment include

Your doctor might also prescribe estrogen therapy to relieve hot flashes and vaginal dryness and to protect your bones.  Calcium and vitamin D supplements, along with strength training, also help keep your bones strong.

If you are trying to get pregnant, other treatments might be needed.

What should you do if you’re worried about absent periods?

            If you haven’t had your period for more than 3 months, see your doctor.  Most causes of secondary amenorrhea can be detected easily and treated successfully.

Questions to ask your doctor

Resources

Find-an-Endocrinologist: www.hormone.org or call 1-800-HORMONE (1-800-467-6663)

Hormone Health Network information about PCOS and POF: Go to www.hormone.org and search for PCOS Go to www.hormone.organd search for POF

Mayo Clinic information about amenorrhea: www.mayoclinic.com/health/amenorrhea/DS00581

MedlinePlus (National Institutes of Health) information about secondary amenorrhea: www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001219.htm

UpToDate.com, Patient information: Absent or irregular periods: Go to www.uptodate.comand search for amenorrhea